R.F. Curlewis crew 26.08.41 †

10/07/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Cologne
Ten Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out the above attacks. A mixed load was carried and consisted of 1000lbs; 500lbs; 250lbs; and containers of incendiaries.
The target was bombed by JDS.276
JDS.629 reports bombs were seen to burst in what was believed to be the Southern part of Cologne.
JDS.723 dropped bombs near fire in town of Bonn. Incendiaries started a good fire.
JDS.727 reports bombs dropped in target area and bursts seen in estimated position of aiming point.
JDS.871 saw bombs burst in target area.
JDS.972 reports firs were seen to start after bombing.
P/O. Scott reports that small fires were started in small town south of Cologne.
P/O. Hamlin reports that a fire was started in target area.
SGT. Breckon bombed target area.
P/O Hobbs saw bombs burst near a small red fire in the centre of a heavy flak concentration.
A number of dummy fires were observed on route.
A.A. fire was slight.
Few searchlights were in operation.
A few enemy aircraft were seen, but no attack made.
The weather was fine but there was haze over route and in target area. Navigation was by D/R, map reading, astro, W/T.

Wellington Mk.Ic W.5663 AA-O

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off – Landed
Flight Time

13/07/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Bremen
Eleven Wellington aircraft of were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these aircraft, X.9634 captained by SGT Miniken, was climbing on course when, apparently without warning, the starboard engine cut at 6,000 feet. He turned for base but lost height rapidly and force landed near the beach off Corton near Lowestoft. SGT. Miniken and SGT. Gilding (Navigator) were rescued but the others are missing. The weather was poor, there being 10/10 cloud over the target and results were not observed. Severe icing conditions were also experienced. Fairly heavy and accurate A.A. fire was encountered on route and in the target area. Few searchlights in operation.

Wellington Mk.Ic R.1457 AA-P

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 23:10 – Landed 04:20
Flight Time 05:10

21/07/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Mannheim and Cherbourg
Eleven Wellington aircraft were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks against the above targets. A mixed bomb load was carried and was made up of 1000lbs; 500lbs; 250lbs; and containers of incendiaries.
CKN.294 reports that bomb bursts were observed. Bursts were observed by CKN.326
Bombs were dropped in target area by CKN.342.
The target was attacked by CKN.380 and bombs were seen to burst. CKN.432 attacked the docks at Cherbourg and reports hits on North West corner. The target was bombed by CKN.446.
CKN.530 bombed target area but no results were observed.
CKN.591 reports that a large fire was started in target area.
CKN.627 started medium fire slightly south east of target and several explosions were observed.
CKN.664 saw H.E.’s and incendiaries burst in target area.
P/O. Scott reports that incendiaries were seen burning.
Dummy fires were observed. An aircraft was seen to be caught in searchlights over Ostend. It was hit by A.A. fire and seen to burst into flames.
A.A. fire was not very intense.
Searchlights were active in target area and at parts of route.
No enemy aircraft were encountered. The weather was fine. Navigation was by D/R, loop, astro, map reading, W/T.

Wellington Mk.Ic R.1038 AA-H

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 22:35 – Landed 04:50
Flight Time 06:15

24/07/1941 – Daylight Attacks Against Battleship Gneisenau at Brest
Six Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out daylight attacks against the above target. One of these aircraft, N.2854 captained by SGT. Streeter failed to return to base. The bomb load consisted of 24 500lbs. S.A.P.
Results were unobserved by DNS.772.
DNS.329 reports bombs overshot aiming point. Direct hits on sheds or warehouses about half mile S.E. of aiming point were observed.
DNS.411 reports that one and possibly two hits were observed on north end of No.1 graving dock.
Results were not observed by P/). Ashworth.
S/L. Lucas reports that bombs were dropped in target area.
Balloons were observed in the harbour.
A.A. fire was very intense and accurate.
Enemy aircraft were numerous and our aircraft were attacked.
The weather was excellent and visibility was good.
Navigation was by D/R, and map reading.

Wellington Mk.Ic R.1457 AA-P

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 10:50 – Landed 16:35
Flight Time 05:45

03/08/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Hanover
Ten Wellington Aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these aircraft, YAM.189 captained by SGT. Matich was intercepted by fighters and bombs were jettisoned. The aircraft was damaged and a landing was made at Newmarket. The remaining aircraft all dropped bombs and fires were started. The aircraft met heavy and light A.A. fire which was fairly accurate, but searchlights were ineffective owing to cloud. Three enemy aircraft were seen but no attacks were made. Heavy cloud was experienced over most of the route and in target area.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9757 AA-S

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 22:40 – Landed 05:40
Flight Time 07:00

06/08/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Mannheim and Calais
Thirteen Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks against the above targets. One of these aircraft, R.1648 captained by SGT. Millet, failed to return to base. The bomb load was mixed and consisted of 1000lbs; 500lbs; 250lbs; and containers of incendiaries.
GHC.170 sighted river near target but had to bomb through 10/10 cloud. Glow of a fire was seen through clouds. Bomb bursts were observed in target area by GHC.231. GNC.265 observed bomb bursts in dock area. GHC.279 bombed target area but was unable to pinpoint target on account of haze. GHC.324 saw bombs burst across outer harbour of Ostend. Unable to reach primary target owing to loss of time and petrol in extensive thunder cloud on East Coast. GHC.470 dropped bombs in target area but results were not observed. GHC.535 bombed target through 9/10 cloud. Fire observed on departure. GHC.688 failed to attack target. GHC.719 bombed flak and searchlight concentrations on E.T.A. through 10/10 cloud. Results were not observed by GHC.750.
P/O. Williams reports direct hit on lock gates. Results were not observed by P/O. Scott owing to heavy cloud.
A fair amount of activity was observed on enemy aerodromes in Brussels-liege area.
A.A. fire was slight but accurate.
Searchlights were ineffective owing to cloud.
GHC.279 reports encounter with probable JU.88. Three attacks were made but the enemy was driven off by return fire. Rear gunner believes he scored hit with third burst, causing aircraft to break away.
Weather was not favourable, there being heavy cloud, thunder, electric storms, and bad icing conditions.
Navigation was by W/T, D/R, astro and loop.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9757 AA-S

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 22:30 – Landed 04:45
Flight Time 06:15

08/08/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Hamburg
Eight Wellington aircraft of were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these aircraft, WAX.319 captained by SGT. Saunders, jettisoned bombs in Westhaven area while taking evasive action to escape enemy fighter. The weather was poor, there being

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9757 AA-S

Sgt. Anthony ‘Tony’ Saunders, RAF – Pilot.
Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Gwyn Martin, RAFVR 981426/ 110857 – Observer.
Sgt. Albert George Windiate, RAFVR 911390/ 112731 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Jack Dennis Thompson, RAFVR 1152206 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Edward J. Callender, RAFVR 1061420 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 22:25 – Landed 06:05
Flight Time 07:40

26/08/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Cologne and Boulogne
Fourteen Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out the above attacks. SWU.567 failed to identify the target and bombs were jettisoned over the sea when petrol gauges had been showing zero for approximately one hour. Another aircraft, captained by Sgt Curlewis, failed to identify the target owing to 10/10 cloud and bombs were returned. All other aircraft dropped their bombs, but heavy cloud in the target area prevented observation of results. A.A. fire was moderate and predicted. Searchlights were ineffective owing to cloud. A few enemy aircraft were seen, but no attacks made

Wellington Mk.Ic X.3205 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Horace Gordon Sloman, RAFVR 929627 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. L.E. Peterson, RAFVR – Navigator.
Sgt. Robert William Toller, RAFVR 1054292 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. H.C. Watson, RAFVR 952162 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Kenneth Hutley Toothill, RAFVR 1114337 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 00:15 – Landed 06:20
Flight Time 06:05

29/08/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Mannheim
Nine Wellington aircraft were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks against the above targets. One of these aircraft, BRO.345 failed to identify the target owing to 10/10 cloud and bombs were brought back. All bombs were dropped by the remaining aircraft, but heavy cloud made observations of results difficult. A.A. fire was heavy and accurate. No enemy aircraft were seen.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.3205 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Horace Gordon Sloman, RAFVR 929627 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. L.E. Peterson, RAFVR – Navigator.
Sgt. Robert William Toller, RAFVR 1054292 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. H.C. Watson, RAFVR 952162 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Kenneth Hutley Toothill, RAFVR 1114337 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 22:00 – Landed 04:45
Flight Time 06:45

02/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Frankfurt
Ten Wellington Aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these aircraft, GYM.475 failed to reach the target owing to failure of the rear gunners oxygen  supply. Bombs were dropped by the remaining aircraft, and large fires were started. A.A. fire was slight but accurate in target area. Several cones of searchlights were reported near the target but these were not very accurate. Three enemy aircraft were seen, but no attacks  developed. The weather was clear over the target area, but hazy on the return journey.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.3205 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Horace Gordon Sloman, RAFVR 929627 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. L.E. Peterson, RAFVR – Navigator.
Sgt. Robert William Toller, RAFVR 1054292 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. H.C. Watson, RAFVR 952162 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Kenneth Hutley Toothill, RAFVR 1114337 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 20:30 – Landed 22:45
Flight Time 02:15

06/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Huls
Thirteen Wellington aircraft were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these  aircraft, X9767 captained by P/O Johnson, failed to return to base. A mixed bomb load was carried and consisted of 1,000 lb GP, 500 lb GP, 250 lb GP, and SBC’s of 4lb incendiaries. One aircraft was seen under attack on the Dutch-German frontier. Another aircraft was observed possibly being shot down by dual AA fire/searchlight action about 15 miles west or south-west of the target. An enemy aircraft was seen taking off from Schipol, but no attacks occurred Bombs were dropped in the target area and numerous fires were started. A.A. fire was light over the target area, but heavy en route, while searchlights were working in cones around target. Three enemy  aircraft seen but no attacks made. The weather was good over the whole journey.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.3205 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Francis Charles Harrison-Smith, RNZAF NZ403959 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 20:08 – Landed 02:18
Flight Time 06:10

08/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Kassel
Ten Wellington aircraft from this Unit were detailed to make individual bombing attacks against the above target. A mixed bomb load was carried and consisted of 1,000 lb, 500 lb, (including delay), 250 lb (including delay fuses), and containers of incendiaries. AA fire was very light and searchlight activity was also light and ineffective. No enemy aircraft seen. The weather conditions were excellent in the target area and en route. Navigation includes:- D.R., Q.D.M., Astro., Pinpoint., Loop and Lorenz.

Wellington Mk.Ic – AA-

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Francis Charles Harrison-Smith, RNZAF NZ403959 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 20:45 – Landed 03:15
Flight Time 06:30

17/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Karlsruhe
Eight Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks on the above targets. One of these aircraft failed to return. A mixed bomb load was carried and consisted of 1,000 lb, 500 lb, 250 lb and containers of incendiaries. A.A. fire and searchlights were slight in the target area. Weather was hazy over the target.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9757 AA-S

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Francis Charles Harrison-Smith, RNZAF NZ403959 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 19:25 – Landed 03:55
Flight Time 08:30

20/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Berlin and Ostend
Twelve Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks on the above targets. One of these aircraft is missing. A mixed bomb load was carried and consisted of 1,000 lbs, 500 lbs, 250 lbs and containers of incendiaries.
Worsening weather resulted in a general recall to all aircraft. Three crews carried on to Berlin and reported AA fire was heavy and fairly intense, and accurate. The aircraft Captained by Sgt Curlewis was attacked by a Ju.88 night fighter after being caught in a cone of searchlights. It was only a single attack, which gave the air gunners little chance of countering before it made off.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9961 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Francis Charles Harrison-Smith, RNZAF NZ403959 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 19:20 – Landed 15:50
Flight Time 20:30

29/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Genoa and Frankfurt
Nine Wellington aircraft were detailed to carry out the above attacks. Target areas were bombed, bursts were seen, and fires started. Heavy and light A.A. fire was ineffective, and very few searchlights operated in target areas. Weather was not too good, there being cloud on route and in target areas. Navigation was by D/R, QDM, pinpoints, loop, Lorenz, astro.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9951 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Colin Maurice Thompson, RNZAF NZ4044237 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 19:10 – Landed 04:40
Flight Time 09:30

30/09/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Stettin and Hamburg
Six Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out individual bombing attacks against the above targets. A mixed bomb load was carried and consisted of 1,000 lbs; 500 lbs; 250 lbs; and containers of incendiaries. Light and heavy flak was encountered and this was fairly accurate. Searchlights were not very active. No enemy aircraft were encountered. Weather was fairly good, slight haze in target areas. Navigation was by D/R, map reading, loop, lorenz, W/T.

Wellington Mk.Ic X.9951 AA-L

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Colin Maurice Thompson, RNZAF NZ4044237 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off 19:10 – Landed 04:10
Flight Time 09:00

10/10/1941 – Bombing Attacks Against Targets at Cologne
Eight Wellington aircraft of this Unit were detailed to carry out the above attacks. One of these aircraft, Z8969, captained by Sgt Curlewis, failed to return to base. Another, X9825, captained by S/Ldr Chamberlain, jettisoned bombs on a road WSW of Cologne, as owing to damage to hydraulics, the aircraft was unable to maintain height with bombs on. Centre of town was successfully attacked and bombs were seen to burst. large fires were started and were seen to be burning twenty minutes later. One aircraft was seen to crash and explode in the city area. A.A. fire was intense at all heights from 12,000 feet, to 4,000 feet. Searchlights were active in two cones, one each side of target. Visibility was good, with large clearing in low cloud over the target area.

Wellington Mk.Ic Z.8969 AA-R?

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Sgt. Colin Maurice Thompson, RNZAF NZ4044237 – 2nd Pilot.
Sgt. Alan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Navigator.
Sgt. Frederick Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front Gunner.
Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.

Take Off – – Landed –
Flight Time – Missing

One aircraft was seen to crash and explode in the city area. It is possible that this may have been 75 Sqn’s Z.8969, which failed to return. Two other Wellingtons, from No 57 (Sister) squadron, Feltwell, also were shot down at or near Cologne.

All these crew members perished. Their bodies were recovered and buried at the British WW 1 cemetery in the Zollstock district, South Cologne. At the end of the war, their remains were disinterred and taken to the Rheinberg.War Cemetery, eight miles south of Wessel.

Sgt. Raymond Fullerton Curlewis, RAAF AUS.402230 – Pilot.
Killed age 25.
Son of Leslie Graham and Laura Fullerton Curlewis, of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – 1. B. 4.

Sgt. Colin Maurice Thompson, RNZAF NZ404427 – 2nd Pilot.
Killed age 23.
Son of Thomas James Thompson and Mabel Bessie Mackay Thompson, of Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – Coll. grave 1. B. 5-8.

Sgt. Allan Clifford Edwards, RAFVR 1163977 – Observer.
Killed age 19.
Son of William Thomas Edwards and Annie May Edwards, of Hadleigh, Essex.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – Coll. grave 1. B. 5-8.
‘I bare you on eagles wings
And brought you unto myself
Exodus XIX.4’

Sgt. Robert Lea Warburton, RAFVR 978776 – Front gunner.
Killed age 21.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – Coll. grave 1. B. 5-8.

Sgt. Fred Garde, RAFVR 993802 – Wireless Operator.
Killed age 21.
Son of Alfred Washington Garde and Jessie Garde; Husband of Doris Joan Garde, of Flixton, Lancashire.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – Coll. grave 1. B. 5-8.
‘To be remembered
By those he loved
Is all he would have wished’

Sgt. Timothy Rowley Murphy, RNZAF NZ404037 – Rear Gunner.
Killed age 20.
Son of John Rowley Murphy and Madeline Mary Murphy, of Gisborne, Auckland, New Zealand.
Buried Rheinberg War Cemetery, Germany..
Grave location – 1. B. 9.